Role Of Critical Thinking In Research Work

Academic research focuses on the creation of new ideas, perspectives, and arguments. The researcher seeks relevant information in articles, books, and other sources, then develops an informed point of view within this ongoing "conversation" among researchers.

The research process is not simply collecting data, evidence, or "facts," then piecing together this preexisting information into a paper. Instead, the research process is about inquiry—asking questions and developing answers through serious critical thinking and thoughtful reflection.

As a result, the research process is recursive, meaning that the researcher regularly revisits ideas, seeks new information when necessary, and reconsiders and refines the research question, topic, or approach. In other words, research almost always involves constant reflection and revision.

This guide is designed to help you think through various aspects of the research process. The steps are not sequential, nor are they prescriptive about what steps you should take at particular points in the research process. Instead, the guide should help you consider the larger, interrelated elements of thinking involved in research.


The Center conducts advanced research and disseminates information on critical thinking.

Each year it sponsors an annual International Conference on Critical Thinking and Educational Reform. It has worked with the College Board, the National Education Association, the U.S. Department of Education, as well as numerous colleges, universities, and school districts to facilitate the implementation of critical thinking instruction focused on intellectual standards.

To assess students' understanding of critical thinking, we recommend use of the International Critical Thinking Test as well as the Critical Thinking Interview Profile for College Students. To assess faculty understanding of critical thinking and its importance to instruction, we recommend the Critical Thinking Interview Profile For Teachers and Faculty. By registering as a member of the community, you will have access to streaming video, which includes a sample student interview with Dr. Richard Paul and Rush Cosgrove.

RESEARCH TITLES

{"id":"377","title":"RESEARCH TITLES","author":"","content":"<div style=\"text-align: center;\">\r\n<div style=\"font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 12px; text-align: left; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\">\r\n<div style=\"text-align: center; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\"><span style=\"font-variant: small-caps; color: #0044aa; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\"><span style=\"font-size: medium; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\"><strong style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\">Logic as Theory of Validation: An Essay in Philosophical Logic</strong></span><br style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" /></span></div>\r\n<div style=\"text-align: center; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\">&nbsp;</div>\r\n<div style=\"text-align: center; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\">by Dr. Richard Paul<br style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" /><br style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" /></div>\r\nDissertation submitted to the University of California at Santa Barbara in partial fulfillment for the degree of Ph.D. in Philosophy\r\n<div style=\"text-align: center; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\">&nbsp;</div>\r\n<p style=\"margin-top: 0px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; margin-left: 0px; text-align: center; padding: 0px;\"><a style=\"color: #09354f; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" href=\"http://www.criticalthinking.org/files/Abstract%20from%20Dr.%20Richard%20Paul%27s%20dissertation.pdf\" target=\"_blank\"><span style=\"color: #0000cc; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\">View Abstract</span></a>&nbsp;-&nbsp;<a style=\"color: #09354f; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" href=\"http://www.criticalthinking.org/files/Dissertation.pdf\" target=\"_blank\"><span style=\"color: #0000cc; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\">View Full Dissertation (Adobe Acrobat PDF)<br style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" /><br style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" /></span></a></p>\r\n<hr style=\"border-right-style: none; border-bottom-style: none; border-left-style: none; border-width: initial; border-color: initial; border-image: initial; border-top-style: dotted; border-top-color: #cccccc; padding: 0px; margin: 5px;\" />\r\n<p style=\"margin-top: 0px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; margin-left: 0px; text-align: center; padding: 0px;\"><span style=\"font-size: medium; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\"><strong style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\"><span style=\"font-family: 'Times New Roman'; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\">&nbsp;</span><span style=\"font-family: 'Times New Roman'; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\"><span style=\"color: #0044aa; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-variant: small-caps; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\">A Critical Analysis of Richard Paul's Substantive Trans-disciplinary Conception of Critical Thinking</span></span></strong></span></p>\r\n<span style=\"color: #0044aa; font-variant: small-caps; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\"><br style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" /></span></div>\r\n<div style=\"font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 12px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\">\r\n<p style=\"margin-top: 0px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; margin-left: 0px; padding: 0px;\">by Enoch Hale, Ph.D.</p>\r\n<p style=\"margin-top: 0px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; margin-left: 0px; padding: 0px;\">Union Institute &amp; University - Cincinnati, Ohio - October 2008</p>\r\n<p style=\"margin-top: 0px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; margin-left: 0px; padding: 0px;\"><a style=\"color: #09354f; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" href=\"http://www.criticalthinking.org/files/Hale_PDE_Abstract.pdf\" target=\"_blank\">View Abstract</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a style=\"color: #0000cc; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" href=\"http://www.criticalthinking.org/files/ToC_Hale_PDE_Final1.pdf\" target=\"_blank\">Dissertation Table of Contents<br style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" /></a></p>\r\n<hr style=\"border-right-style: none; border-bottom-style: none; border-left-style: none; border-width: initial; border-color: initial; border-image: initial; border-top-style: dotted; border-top-color: #cccccc; padding: 0px; margin: 5px;\" />\r\n<div style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\">\r\n<div style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\"><span style=\"font-variant: small-caps; color: #0044aa; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\"><span style=\"font-size: medium; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\"><strong style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\">Critical Thinking in the Oxford Tutorial: A Call for an Explicit and Systematic Approach</strong></span><br style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" /></span></div>\r\n<div style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\">&nbsp;</div>\r\n</div>\r\n<div style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\">by Rush Cosgrove</div>\r\n<div style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\">A research study focused on the extent to which the Oxford Tutorial promotes critical thinking</div>\r\n<div style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\"><strong style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\"><br style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" /></strong></div>\r\n<div style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\"><a style=\"color: #09354f; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" href=\"http://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/critical-thinking-in-the-oxford-tutorial-a-call-for-an-expli/1018\" target=\"_blank\">View Abstract</a>&nbsp;-&nbsp;<a style=\"color: #09354f; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" href=\"http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07294360.2010.487259\" target=\"_blank\">View Full Article</a></div>\r\n<div style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\">\r\n<hr style=\"border-right-style: none; border-bottom-style: none; border-left-style: none; border-width: initial; border-color: initial; border-image: initial; border-top-style: dotted; border-top-color: #cccccc; padding: 0px; margin: 5px;\" />\r\n</div>\r\n<div style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\"><span style=\"font-variant: small-caps; color: #0044aa; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\"><span style=\"font-size: medium; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\"><strong style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\">Critical Thinking in the Oxford Tutorial</strong></span><br style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" /></span></div>\r\n<div style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\">&nbsp;</div>\r\n<div style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\">by Rush Cosgrove<br style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" /><br style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" /></div>\r\nThesis submitted to the University of Oxford in partial fulfillment for the degree of M.Sc. in Higher Education\r\n<div style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\">&nbsp;</div>\r\n<p style=\"margin-top: 5px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; margin-left: 0px; padding: 0px;\"><a style=\"color: #09354f; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" href=\"http://www.criticalthinking.org/research/Abstract-RCOSGROVE.cfm\" target=\"_blank\">View Abstract</a>&nbsp;-&nbsp;<a style=\"color: #09354f; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" href=\"http://www.criticalthinking.org/files/Critical%20Thinking%20in%20the%20Oxford%20Tutorial.pdf\" target=\"_blank\">View Full Dissertation (Adobe Acrobat PDF)<br style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" /></a></p>\r\n<hr style=\"border-right-style: none; border-bottom-style: none; border-left-style: none; border-width: initial; border-color: initial; border-image: initial; border-top-style: dotted; border-top-color: #cccccc; padding: 0px; margin: 5px;\" />\r\n<div style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\"><span style=\"font-variant: small-caps; color: #0044aa; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\"><span style=\"font-size: medium; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\"><strong style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\">Critical Thinking: Lessons from a Continuing Professional Development Initiative in a London Comprehensive Secondary School</strong></span><br style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" /><span style=\"color: #000000; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\"><span style=\"font-variant: normal; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\"><span style=\"color: #0044aa; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\"><span style=\"font-variant: small-caps; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\"><br style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" /></span></span></span></span></span></div>\r\n<div style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\">by Rush Cosgrove<br style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" /><br style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" /></div>\r\n<div style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\">University of Cambridge -&nbsp; Cambridge, UK - 2010<strong style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\"><br style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" /><br style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" /></strong><a style=\"color: #0000cc; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" href=\"http://www.criticalthinking.org//research/AbstractThesis-RCOSGROVE.cfm\" target=\"_blank\">View Abstract</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a style=\"color: #0000cc; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" href=\"http://www.criticalthinking.org/files/Rush%20Cosgrave%20Full%20Thesis.pdf\" target=\"_blank\">View Dissertation</a></div>\r\n<a style=\"color: #09354f; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" href=\"http://www.criticalthinking.org/files/Critical%20Thinking%20in%20the%20Oxford%20Tutorial.pdf\" target=\"_blank\"><br style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" /></a>\r\n<hr style=\"border-right-style: none; border-bottom-style: none; border-left-style: none; border-width: initial; border-color: initial; border-image: initial; border-top-style: dotted; border-top-color: #cccccc; padding: 0px; margin: 5px;\" />\r\n<span style=\"font-variant: small-caps; color: #0044aa; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\"><span style=\"font-size: medium; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\"><strong style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\">Critical Thinking Instruction in Selected Greater Los Angeles Area High Schools</strong></span><br style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" /></span></div>\r\n<div style=\"font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 12px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\">&nbsp;</div>\r\n<div style=\"font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 12px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\">by Paul Everett Thomas</div>\r\n<div style=\"font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 12px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\">A dissertation Submitted to the School of Education and Behavioral Studies in partial fulfillment of the requirements</div>\r\n<div style=\"font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 12px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\">for the degree Doctor of Education (May, 1999)<strong style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\"><br style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" /></strong></div>\r\n<div style=\"font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 12px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\">&nbsp;</div>\r\n<p style=\"margin-top: 5px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; margin-left: 0px; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 12px; padding: 0px;\"><a style=\"color: #09354f; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" href=\"http://www.criticalthinking.org/research/Abstract-PETHOMAS.cfm\" target=\"_blank\">View Abstract</a>&nbsp;-&nbsp;<a style=\"color: #09354f; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" href=\"http://www.criticalthinking.org/files/Azusa%20Pacific%20University_opt.pdf\" target=\"_blank\">View Full Dissertation (Adobe Acrobat PDF)</a></p>\r\n<hr style=\"border-right-style: none; border-bottom-style: none; border-left-style: none; border-width: initial; border-color: initial; border-image: initial; border-top-style: dotted; border-top-color: #cccccc; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 12px; text-align: left; padding: 0px; margin: 5px;\" />\r\n<p style=\"margin-top: 5px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; margin-left: 0px; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 12px; padding: 0px;\"><span style=\"font-size: medium; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\"><strong style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\"><span style=\"font-variant: small-caps; color: #0044aa; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\">Effect of a Model for Critical Thinking on Student Achievement in Primary Source Document Analysis</span></strong></span><br style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" /><span style=\"font-size: medium; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\"><strong style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\"><span style=\"font-variant: small-caps; color: #0044aa; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\">and Interpretation, Argumentative Reasoning, Critical Thinking Dispositions and History Content</span></strong></span><br style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" /><span style=\"font-size: medium; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\"><strong style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\"><span style=\"font-variant: small-caps; color: #0044aa; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\">in a Community College History Course</span></strong></span><br style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" /><br style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" />Abstract of the Study, conducted by Jenny Reed, in partial fulfillment for her dissertation (October 26, 1998)<br style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" /><br style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" /><a style=\"color: #09354f; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" href=\"http://www.criticalthinking.org/research/Abstract-JREED.cfm\">View Abstract</a>&nbsp; -&nbsp;&nbsp;<a style=\"color: #09354f; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" href=\"http://www.criticalthinking.org/resources/JReed-Dissertation.pdf\">View Full Dissertation (Adobe Acrobat PDF)</a></p>\r\n<hr style=\"border-right-style: none; border-bottom-style: none; border-left-style: none; border-width: initial; border-color: initial; border-image: initial; border-top-style: dotted; border-top-color: #cccccc; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 12px; text-align: left; padding: 0px; margin: 5px;\" />\r\n<p style=\"margin-top: 5px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; margin-left: 0px; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 12px; padding: 0px;\"><span style=\"font-variant: small-caps; color: #0044aa; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\"><span style=\"font-size: medium; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\"><strong style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\">The Effect of Richard Paul's Universal Elements and Standards of Reasoning on Twelfth Grade Composition</strong></span><br style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" /><span style=\"font-size: medium; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\"><strong style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\">A Research Proposal Presented to the Faculty Of the School</strong></span><br style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" /><span style=\"font-size: medium; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\"><strong style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\">of Education Alliant International University In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the</strong></span><br style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" /><span style=\"font-size: medium; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\"><strong style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\">Degree of Master of Arts in Education: Teaching</strong></span><br style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" /><br style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" /></span>Study conducted by J. Stephen Scanlan, San Diego (2006)<br style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" /><br style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" /><a style=\"color: #09354f; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" href=\"http://www.criticalthinking.org/research/Abstract-JSCANLAN.cfm\">View Abstract</a>&nbsp; - &nbsp;&nbsp;<a style=\"color: #09354f; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" href=\"http://www.criticalthinking.org/resources/SScanlan.pdf\">View Full Dissertation (Adobe Acrobat PDF)</a></p>\r\n<hr style=\"border-right-style: none; border-bottom-style: none; border-left-style: none; border-width: initial; border-color: initial; border-image: initial; border-top-style: dotted; border-top-color: #cccccc; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 12px; text-align: left; padding: 0px; margin: 5px;\" />\r\n<p style=\"margin-top: 5px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; margin-left: 0px; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 12px; padding: 0px;\"><span style=\"font-variant: small-caps; color: #0044aa; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\"><span style=\"font-size: medium; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\"><strong style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\">Study of 38 Public Universities and 28 Private Universities</strong></span><br style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" /><span style=\"font-size: medium; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\"><strong style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\">To Determine Faculty Emphasis on Critical Thinking In Instruction</strong></span><br style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" /><br style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" /></span></p>\r\n<p style=\"margin-top: 5px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; margin-left: 0px; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 12px; padding: 0px;\">Principal Researchers: Dr. Richard Paul, Dr. Linda Elder, and Dr. Ted Bartell</p>\r\n<p style=\"margin-top: 5px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; margin-left: 0px; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 12px; padding: 0px;\"><a style=\"color: #09354f; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" href=\"http://www.criticalthinking.org/research/Abstract-RPAUL-38public.cfm\">View Abstract</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; - &nbsp;&nbsp;<a style=\"color: #09354f; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" href=\"http://www.criticalthinking.org/store/products/california-teacher-preparation-for-instruction-in-critical-thinking/147\">View the full study</a></p>\r\n<hr style=\"border-right-style: none; border-bottom-style: none; border-left-style: none; border-width: initial; border-color: initial; border-image: initial; border-top-style: dotted; border-top-color: #cccccc; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 12px; text-align: left; padding: 0px; margin: 5px;\" />\r\n<p style=\"margin-top: 5px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; margin-left: 0px; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 12px; padding: 0px;\"><span style=\"font-variant: small-caps; color: #0044aa; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\"><span style=\"font-size: medium; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\"><strong style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\">Substantive Critical Thinking as Developed by the Foundation for Critical Thinking Proves Effective in Raising SAT and ACT Test Scores at West Side High School:&nbsp; Staff Development Program Utilizes Critical Thinking Instruction to Improve Student Performance on ACT and SAT Tests, and in Critical Reading, Writing and Math</strong></span><br style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" /><br style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" /></span><span style=\"font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\"><span style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" lang=\"en-us\">Dr.</span><span style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" lang=\"en-us\">&nbsp;</span><span style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" lang=\"en-us\">John Crook, West Side High School Principal</span></span><strong style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\"><span style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" lang=\"en-us\"><span style=\"font-family: Arial; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\"><br style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" /><br style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" /><a style=\"color: #09354f; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" href=\"http://www.criticalthinking.org/research/raising_SAT_and_ACT_Scores.cfm\">View the Report</a></span></span></strong></p>\r\n<hr style=\"border-right-style: none; border-bottom-style: none; border-left-style: none; border-width: initial; border-color: initial; border-image: initial; border-top-style: dotted; border-top-color: #cccccc; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 12px; text-align: left; padding: 0px; margin: 5px;\" />\r\n<p style=\"margin-top: 5px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; margin-left: 0px; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 12px; padding: 0px;\"><span style=\"font-variant: small-caps; color: #0044aa; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\"><span style=\"font-size: medium; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\"><strong style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\">Teaching Critical Thinking Skills to Fourth Grade Students Identified as Gifted and Talented</strong></span><br style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" /></span><br style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" />by Debra Connerly<br style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" /><br style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" />Graceland University - Cedar Rapids, Iowa - December 2006<br style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" /><br style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" /><a style=\"color: #09354f; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" href=\"http://www.criticalthinking.org/research/Debra_Connerly_study.cfm\">View the Report</a></p>\r\n<hr style=\"border-right-style: none; border-bottom-style: none; border-left-style: none; border-width: initial; border-color: initial; border-image: initial; border-top-style: dotted; border-top-color: #cccccc; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 12px; text-align: left; padding: 0px; margin: 5px;\" />\r\n<p style=\"margin-top: 5px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; margin-left: 0px; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 12px; padding: 0px;\"><span style=\"font-variant: small-caps; color: #0044aa; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\"><span style=\"font-size: medium; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\"><strong style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\">The Loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia: Portaging Leadership Lessons with a Critical Thinking Model</strong></span><br style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" /></span></p>\r\n<p style=\"margin-top: 5px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; margin-left: 0px; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 12px; padding: 0px;\">by Rob Niewoehner, Ph.D. U.S. Navy<br style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" /><br style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" />Graceland University - Cedar Rapids, Iowa - December 2006<br style=\"padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" /><a style=\"color: #09354f; padding: 0px; margin: 0px;\" href=\"http://www.criticalthinking.org/articles/engineering-reasoning.cfm\">View the Report</a></p>\r\n</div>\r\n<p style=\"text-align: center;\"><br style=\"clear: both;\" /></p>","public_access":"1","public_downloads":"1","sku":"","files":[],"images":[]}

Logic as Theory of Validation: An Essay in Philosophical Logic

 

by Dr. Richard Paul

Dissertation submitted to the University of California at Santa Barbara in partial fulfillment for the degree of Ph.D. in Philosophy

 

View Abstract - View Full Dissertation (Adobe Acrobat PDF)


 A Critical Analysis of Richard Paul's Substantive Trans-disciplinary Conception of Critical Thinking


by Enoch Hale, Ph.D.

Union Institute & University - Cincinnati, Ohio - October 2008

View Abstract    Dissertation Table of Contents


Critical Thinking in the Oxford Tutorial: A Call for an Explicit and Systematic Approach

 

by Rush Cosgrove

A research study focused on the extent to which the Oxford Tutorial promotes critical thinking

View Abstract - View Full Article

Critical Thinking in the Oxford Tutorial

 

by Rush Cosgrove

Thesis submitted to the University of Oxford in partial fulfillment for the degree of M.Sc. in Higher Education

 

View Abstract - View Full Dissertation (Adobe Acrobat PDF)


Critical Thinking: Lessons from a Continuing Professional Development Initiative in a London Comprehensive Secondary School

by Rush Cosgrove

University of Cambridge -  Cambridge, UK - 2010

View Abstract    View Dissertation



Critical Thinking Instruction in Selected Greater Los Angeles Area High Schools

 

by Paul Everett Thomas

A dissertation Submitted to the School of Education and Behavioral Studies in partial fulfillment of the requirements

for the degree Doctor of Education (May, 1999)

 

View Abstract - View Full Dissertation (Adobe Acrobat PDF)


Effect of a Model for Critical Thinking on Student Achievement in Primary Source Document Analysis
and Interpretation, Argumentative Reasoning, Critical Thinking Dispositions and History Content
in a Community College History Course

Abstract of the Study, conducted by Jenny Reed, in partial fulfillment for her dissertation (October 26, 1998)

View Abstract  -  View Full Dissertation (Adobe Acrobat PDF)


The Effect of Richard Paul's Universal Elements and Standards of Reasoning on Twelfth Grade Composition
A Research Proposal Presented to the Faculty Of the School
of Education Alliant International University In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the
Degree of Master of Arts in Education: Teaching

Study conducted by J. Stephen Scanlan, San Diego (2006)

View Abstract  -   View Full Dissertation (Adobe Acrobat PDF)


Study of 38 Public Universities and 28 Private Universities
To Determine Faculty Emphasis on Critical Thinking In Instruction

Principal Researchers: Dr. Richard Paul, Dr. Linda Elder, and Dr. Ted Bartell

View Abstract   -   View the full study


Substantive Critical Thinking as Developed by the Foundation for Critical Thinking Proves Effective in Raising SAT and ACT Test Scores at West Side High School:  Staff Development Program Utilizes Critical Thinking Instruction to Improve Student Performance on ACT and SAT Tests, and in Critical Reading, Writing and Math

Dr. John Crook, West Side High School Principal

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Teaching Critical Thinking Skills to Fourth Grade Students Identified as Gifted and Talented

by Debra Connerly

Graceland University - Cedar Rapids, Iowa - December 2006

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The Loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia: Portaging Leadership Lessons with a Critical Thinking Model

by Rob Niewoehner, Ph.D. U.S. Navy

Graceland University - Cedar Rapids, Iowa - December 2006
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