Jel Classification Definition Essay

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A: General Economics and Teaching

  • A00 - General
  • A1 - General Economics
  • A10 - General
  • A11 - Role of Economics; Role of Economists; Market for Economists
  • A12 - Relation of Economics to Other Disciplines
  • A13 - Relation of Economics to Social Values
  • A14 - Sociology of Economics
  • A19 - Other
  • A2 - Economic Education and Teaching of Economics
  • A20 - General
  • A21 - Pre-college
  • A22 - Undergraduate
  • A23 - Graduate
  • A29 - Other
  • A3 - Collective Works
  • A30 - General
  • A31 - Collected Writings of Individuals
  • A32 - Collective Volumes
  • A33 - Handbooks
  • A39 - Other

B: Methodology and History of Economic Thought

  • B00 - General
  • B1 - History of Economic Thought through 1925
  • B10 - General
  • B11 - Preclassical (Ancient, Medieval, Mercantilist, Physiocratic)
  • B12 - Classical (includes Adam Smith)
  • B13 - Neoclassical through 1925 (Austrian, Marshallian, Walrasian, Stockholm School)
  • B14 - Socialist; Marxist
  • B15 - Historical; Institutional; Evolutionary
  • B16 - Quantitative and Mathematical
  • B19 - Other
  • B2 - History of Economic Thought since 1925
  • B20 - General
  • B21 - Microeconomics
  • B22 - Macroeconomics
  • B23 - Econometrics; Quantitative and Mathematical Studies
  • B24 - Socialist; Marxist; Sraffian
  • B25 - Historical; Institutional; Evolutionary; Austrian
  • B26 - Financial Economics
  • B29 - Other
  • B3 - History of Economic Thought: Individuals
  • B30 - General
  • B31 - Individuals
  • B32 - Obituaries
  • B4 - Economic Methodology
  • B40 - General
  • B41 - Economic Methodology
  • B49 - Other
  • B5 - Current Heterodox Approaches
  • B50 - General
  • B51 - Socialist; Marxian; Sraffian
  • B52 - Institutional; Evolutionary
  • B53 - Austrian
  • B54 - Feminist Economics
  • B59 - Other

C: Mathematical and Quantitative Methods

  • C00 - General
  • C01 - Econometrics
  • C02 - Mathematical Methods
  • C1 - Econometric and Statistical Methods: General
  • C10 - General
  • C11 - Bayesian Analysis: General
  • C12 - Hypothesis Testing: General
  • C13 - Estimation: General
  • C14 - Semiparametric and Nonparametric Methods: General
  • C15 - Statistical Simulation Methods: General
  • C18 - Methodological Issues: General
  • C19 - Other
  • C2 - Econometric Methods: Single Equation Models
  • C20 - General
  • C21 - Cross-Sectional Models; Spatial Models; Treatment Effect Models; Quantile Regressions
  • C22 - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes
  • C23 - Panel Data Models; Spatio-temporal Models
  • C24 - Truncated and Censored Models; Switching Regression Models; Threshold Regression Models
  • C25 - Discrete Regression and Qualitative Choice Models; Discrete Regressors; Proportions; Probabilities
  • C26 - Instrumental Variables (IV) Estimation
  • C29 - Other
  • C3 - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables
  • C30 - General
  • C31 - Cross-Sectional Models; Spatial Models; Treatment Effect Models; Quantile Regressions; Social Interaction Models
  • C32 - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models;Processes; State Space Models
  • C33 - Panel Data Models; Spatio-temporal Models
  • C34 - Truncated and Censored Models; Switching Regression Models
  • C35 - Discrete Regression and Qualitative Choice Models; Discrete Regressors; Proportions
  • C36 - Instrumental Variables (IV) Estimation
  • C38 - Classification Methods; Cluster Analysis; Principal Components; Factor Models
  • C39 - Other
  • C4 - Econometric and Statistical Methods: Special Topics
  • C40 - General
  • C41 - Duration Analysis; Optimal Timing Strategies
  • C43 - Index Numbers and Aggregation
  • C44 - Operations Research; Statistical Decision Theory
  • C45 - Neural Networks and Related Topics
  • C49 - Other
  • C5 - Econometric Modeling
  • C50 - General
  • C51 - Model Construction and Estimation
  • C52 - Model Evaluation, Validation, and Selection
  • C53 - Forecasting and Prediction Methods; Simulation Methods
  • C54 - Quantitative Policy Modeling
  • C55 - Large Data Sets: Modeling and Analysis
  • C57 - Econometrics of Games and Auctions
  • C58 - Financial Econometrics
  • C59 - Other
  • C6 - Mathematical Methods; Programming Models; Mathematical and Simulation Modeling
  • C60 - General
  • C61 - Optimization Techniques; Programming Models; Dynamic Analysis
  • C62 - Existence and Stability Conditions of Equilibrium
  • C63 - Computational Techniques; Simulation Modeling
  • C65 - Miscellaneous Mathematical Tools
  • C67 - Input-Output Models
  • C68 - Computable General Equilibrium Models
  • C69 - Other
  • C7 - Game Theory and Bargaining Theory
  • C70 - General
  • C71 - Cooperative Games
  • C72 - Noncooperative Games
  • C73 - Stochastic and Dynamic Games; Evolutionary Games; Repeated Games
  • C78 - Bargaining Theory; Matching Theory
  • C79 - Other
  • C8 - Data Collection and Data Estimation Methodology; Computer Programs
  • C80 - General
  • C81 - Methodology for Collecting, Estimating, and Organizing Microeconomic Data
  • C82 - Methodology for Collecting, Estimating, and Organizing Macroeconomic Data
  • C83 - Survey Methods; Sampling Methods
  • C87 - Econometric Software
  • C88 - Other Computer Software
  • C89 - Other
  • C9 - Design of Experiments
  • C90 - General
  • C91 - Laboratory, Individual Behavior
  • C92 - Laboratory, Group Behavior
  • C93 - Field Experiments
  • C99 - Other

D: Microeconomics

  • D00 - General
  • D01 - Microeconomic Behavior: Underlying Principles
  • D02 - Institutions: Design, Formation, Operations, and Impact
  • D03 - Behavioral Microeconomics: Underlying Principles
  • D04 - Microeconomic Policy: Formulation, Implementation, and Evaluation
  • D1 - Household Behavior
  • D10 - General
  • D11 - Consumer Economics: Theory
  • D12 - Consumer Economics: Empirical Analysis
  • D13 - Household Production and Intrahousehold Allocation
  • D14 - Household Saving; Personal Finance
  • D18 - Consumer Protection
  • D19 - Other
  • D2 - Production and Organizations
  • D20 - General
  • D21 - Firm Behavior: Theory
  • D22 - Firm Behavior: Empirical Analysis
  • D23 - Organizational Behavior; Transaction Costs; Property Rights
  • D24 - Production; Cost; Capital; Capital, Total Factor, and Multifactor Productivity; Capacity
  • D29 - Other
  • D3 - Distribution
  • D30 - General
  • D31 - Personal Income, Wealth, and Their Distributions
  • D33 - Factor Income Distribution
  • D39 - Other
  • D4 - Market Structure, Pricing, and Design
  • D40 - General
  • D41 - Perfect Competition
  • D42 - Monopoly
  • D43 - Oligopoly and Other Forms of Market Imperfection
  • D44 - Auctions
  • D45 - Rationing; Licensing
  • D46 - Value Theory
  • D49 - Other
  • D5 - General Equilibrium and Disequilibrium
  • D50 - General
  • D51 - Exchange and Production Economies
  • D52 - Incomplete Markets
  • D57 - Input�Output Tables and Analysis
  • D58 - Computable and Other Applied General Equilibrium Models
  • D59 - Other
  • D6 - Economic Welfare
  • D60 - General
  • D61 - Allocative Efficiency; Cost-Benefit Analysis
  • D62 - Externalities
  • D63 - Equity, Justice, Inequality, and Other Normative Criteria and Measurement
  • D64 - Altruism; Philanthropy; Intergenerational Transfers†
  • D69 - Other
  • D7 - Analysis of Collective Decision-Making
  • D70 - General
  • D71 - Social Choice; Clubs; Committees; Associations
  • D72 - Economic Models of Political Processes: Rent-Seeking, Elections, Legislatures, and Voting Behavior
  • D73 - Bureaucracy; Administrative Processes in Public Organizations; Corruption
  • D74 - Conflict; Conflict Resolution; Alliances; Revolutions
  • D78 - Positive Analysis of Policy-Making and Implementation
  • D79 - Other
  • D8 - Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty
  • D80 - General
  • D81 - Criteria for Decision-Making under Risk and Uncertainty
  • D82 - Asymmetric and Private Information; Mechanism Design
  • D83 - Search; Learning; Information and Knowledge; Communication; Belief; Unawareness
  • D84 - Expectations; Speculations
  • D85 - Network Formation and Analysis: Theory
  • D86 - Economics of Contract: Theory
  • D87 - Neuroeconomics
  • D89 - Other
  • D9 - Intertemporal Choice
  • D90 - General
  • D91 - Intertemporal Household Choice; Life Cycle Models and Saving
  • D92 - Intertemporal Firm Choice, Investment, Capacity, and Financing
  • D99 - Other

E: Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics

  • E00 - General
  • E01 - Measurement and Data on National Income and Product Accounts and Wealth; Environmental Accounts
  • E02 - Institutions and the Macroeconomy
  • E03 - Behavioral Macroeconomics
  • E1 - General Aggregative Models
  • E10 - General
  • E11 - Marxian; Sraffian; Kaleckiany
  • E12 - Keynes; Keynesian; Post-Keynesian
  • E13 - Neoclassical
  • E14 - Austrian; Evolutionary; Institutional
  • E16 - Social Accounting Matrix
  • E17 - Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications
  • E19 - Other
  • E2 - Consumption, Saving, Production, Investment, Labor Markets, and Informal Economy
  • E20 - General
  • E21 - Consumption; Saving; Wealth
  • E22 - Investment; Capital; Intangible Capital; Capacity
  • E23 - Production
  • E24 - Employment; Unemployment; Wages; Intergenerational Income Distribution; Aggregate Human Capital; Aggregate Labor Productivity
  • E25 - Aggregate Factor Income Distribution
  • E27 - Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications
  • E29 - Other
  • E3 - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles
  • E30 - General
  • E31 - Price Level; Inflation; Deflation
  • E32 - Business Fluctuations; Cycles
  • E37 - Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications
  • E39 - Other
  • E4 - Money and Interest Rates
  • E40 - General
  • E41 - Demand for Money
  • E42 - Monetary Systems; Standards; Regimes; Government and the Monetary System; Payment Systems
  • E43 - Interest Rates: Determination, Term Structure, and Effects
  • E44 - Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy
  • E47 - Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications
  • E49 - Other
  • E5 - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit
  • E50 - General
  • E51 - Money Supply; Credit; Money Multipliers
  • E52 - Monetary Policy
  • E58 - Central Banks and Their Policies
  • E59 - Other
  • E6 - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outloo
  • E60 - General
  • E61 - Policy Objectives; Policy Designs and Consistency; Policy Coordination
  • E62 - Fiscal Policy
  • E63 - Comparative or Joint Analysis of Fiscal and Monetary Policy; Stabilization; Treasury Policy
  • E64 - Incomes Policy; Price Policy
  • E65 - Studies of Particular Policy Episodes
  • E66 - General Outlook and Conditions
  • E69 - Other

F: International Economics

  • F00 - General
  • F01 - Global Outlook
  • F02 - International Economic Order and Integration
  • F1 - Trade
  • F10 - General
  • F11 - Neoclassical Models of Trade
  • F12 - Models of Trade with Imperfect Competition and Scale Economies; Fragmentation
  • F13 - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations
  • F14 - Empirical Studies of Trade
  • F15 - Economic Integration
  • F16 - Trade and Labor Market Interactions
  • F17 - Trade Forecasting and Simulation
  • F18 - Trade and Environment
  • F19 - Other
  • F2 - International Factor Movements and International Business
  • F20 - General
  • F21 - International Investment; Long-Term Capital Movements
  • F22 - International Migration
  • F23 - Multinational Firms; International Business
  • F24 - Remittances
  • F29 - Other
  • F3 - International Finance
  • F30 - General
  • F31 - Foreign Exchange
  • F32 - Current Account Adjustment; Short-Term Capital Movements
  • F33 - International Monetary Arrangements and Institutions
  • F34 - International Lending and Debt Problems
  • F35 - Foreign Aid
  • F36 - Financial Aspects of Economic Integration
  • F37 - International Finance Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications
  • F38 - International Financial Policy: Financial Transactions Tax; Capital Controls
  • F39 - Other
  • F4 - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance
  • F40 - General
  • F41 - Open Economy Macroeconomics
  • F42 - International Policy Coordination and Transmission
  • F43 - Economic Growth of Open Economies
  • F44 - International Business Cycles
  • F45 - Macroeconomic Issues of Monetary Unions
  • F47 - Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications
  • F49 - Other
  • F5 - International Relations, National Security, and International Political Economy
  • F50 - General
  • F51 - International Conflicts; Negotiations; Sanctions
  • F52 - National Security; Economic Nationalism
  • F53 - International Agreements and Observance; International Organizations
  • F54 - Colonialism; Imperialism; Postcolonialism
  • F55 - International Institutional Arrangements
  • F59 - Other
  • F6 - Economic Impacts of Globalization
  • F60 - General
  • F61 - Microeconomic Impacts
  • F62 - Macroeconomic Impacts
  • F63 - Economic Development
  • F64 - Environment
  • F65 - Finance
  • F66 - Labor
  • F68 - Policy
  • F69 - Other

G: Financial Economics

  • G00 - General
  • G01 - Financial Crises
  • G02 - Behavioral Finance: Underlying Principles
  • G1 - General Financial Markets
  • G10 - General
  • G11 - Portfolio Choice; Investment Decisions
  • G12 - Asset Pricing; Trading Volume; Bond Interest Rates
  • G13 - Contingent Pricing; Futures Pricing
  • G14 - Information and Market Efficiency; Event Studies; Insider Trading
  • G15 - International Financial Markets
  • G18 - Government Policy and Regulation
  • G19 - Other
  • G2 - Financial Institutions and Services
  • G20 - General
  • G21 - Banks; Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
  • G22 - Insurance; Insurance Companies; Actuarial Studies
  • G23 - Non-bank Financial Institutions; Financial Instruments; Institutional Investors
  • G24 - Investment Banking; Venture Capital; Brokerage; Ratings and Ratings Agencies
  • G28 - Government Policy and Regulation
  • G29 - Other
  • G3 - Corporate Finance and Governance
  • G30 - General
  • G31 - Capital Budgeting; Fixed Investment and Inventory Studies; Capacity
  • G32 - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill
  • G33 - Bankruptcy; Liquidation
  • G34 - Mergers; Acquisitions; Restructuring; Corporate Governance
  • G35 - Payout Policy
  • G38 - Government Policy and Regulation
  • G39 - Other

H: Public Economics

  • H00 - General
  • H1 - Structure and Scope of Government
  • H10 - General
  • H11 - Structure and Scope of Government
  • H12 - Crisis Management
  • H13 - Economics of Eminent Domain; Expropriation; Nationalization
  • H19 - Other
  • H2 - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue
  • H20 - General
  • H21 - Efficiency; Optimal Taxation
  • H22 - Incidence
  • H23 - Externalities; Redistributive Effects; Environmental Taxes and Subsidies
  • H24 - Personal Income and Other Nonbusiness Taxes and Subsidies
  • H25 - Business Taxes and Subsidies
  • H26 - Tax Evasion and Avoidance
  • H27 - Other Sources of Revenue
  • H29 - Other
  • H3 - Fiscal Policies and Behavior of Economic Agents
  • H30 - General
  • H31 - Household
  • H32 - Firm
  • H39 - Other
  • H4 - Publicly Provided Goods
  • H40 - General
  • H41 - Public Goods
  • H42 - Publicly Provided Private Goods
  • H43 - Project Evaluation; Social Discount Rate
  • H44 - Publicly Provided Goods: Mixed Markets
  • H49 - Other
  • H5 - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies
  • H50 - General
  • H51 - Government Expenditures and Health
  • H52 - Government Expenditures and Education
  • H53 - Government Expenditures and Welfare Programs
  • H54 - Infrastructures; Other Public Investment and Capital Stock
  • H55 - Social Security and Public Pensions
  • H56 - National Security and War
  • H57 - Procurement
  • H59 - Other
  • H6 - National Budget, Deficit, and Debt
  • H60 - General
  • H61 - Budget; Budget Systems
  • H62 - Deficit; Surplus
  • H63 - Debt; Debt Management; Sovereign Debt
  • H68 - Forecasts of Budgets, Deficits, and Debt
  • H69 - Other
  • H7 - State and Local Government; Intergovernmental Relations
  • H70 - General
  • H71 - State and Local Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue
  • H72 - State and Local Budget and Expenditures
  • H73 - Interjurisdictional Differentials and Their Effects
  • H74 - State and Local Borrowing
  • H75 - State and Local Government: Health; Education; Welfare; Public Pensions
  • H76 - State and Local Government: Other Expenditure Categories
  • H77 - Intergovernmental Relations
  • H79 - Other
  • H8 - Miscellaneous Issues
  • H80 - General
  • H81 - Governmental Loans and Credits
  • H82 - Governmental Property
  • H83 - Public Administration; Public Sector Accounting and Audits
  • H84 - Disaster Aid
  • H87 - International Fiscal Issues; International Public Goods
  • H89 - Other

I: Health, Education and Welfare

  • I00 - General
  • I1 - Health
  • I10 - General
  • I11 - Analysis of Health Care Markets
  • I12 - Health Behavior
  • I13 - Health Insurance, Public and Private
  • I14 - Health and Inequality
  • I15 - Health and Economic Development
  • I18 - Government Policy; Regulation; Public Health
  • I19 - Other
  • I2 - Education and Research Institutions
  • I20 - General
  • I21 - Analysis of Education
  • I22 - Educational Finance ; Financial Aid
  • I23 - Higher Education; Research Institutions
  • I24 - Education and Inequality
  • I25 - Education and Economic Development
  • I26 - Returns to Education
  • I28 - Government Policy
  • I29 - Other
  • I3 - Welfare and Poverty
  • I30 - General
  • I31 - General Welfare; Basic Needs; Quality of Life
  • I32 - Measurement and Analysis of Poverty
  • I38 - Provision and Effects of Welfare Programs
  • I39 - Other

J: Labor and Demographic Economics

  • J00 - General
  • J01 - Labor Economics: General
  • J08 - Labor Economics Policies
  • J1 - Demographic Economics
  • J10 - General
  • J11 - Demographic Trends, Macroeconomic Effects, and Forecasts
  • J12 - Marriage; Marital Dissolution; Family Structure
  • J13 - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
  • J14 - Economics of the Elderly; Economics of the Handicapped; Non-Labor Market Discrimination
  • J15 - Economics of Minorities, Races, Indigenous Peoples, and Immigrants, Non-labor Discrimination
  • J16 - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
  • J17 - Value of Life; Forgone Income
  • J18 - Public Policy
  • J19 - Other
  • J2 - Demand and Supply of Labor
  • J20 - General
  • J21 - Labor Force and Employment, Size, and Structure
  • J22 - Time Allocation and Labor Supply
  • J23 - Labor Demand
  • J24 - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity
  • J26 - Retirement; Retirement Policies
  • J28 - Safety; Job Satisfaction; Related Public Policy
  • J29 - Other
  • J3 - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs
  • J30 - General
  • J31 - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials
  • J32 - Nonwage Labor Costs and Benefits; Retirement Plans; Private Pensions
  • J33 - Compensation Packages; Payment Methods
  • J38 - Public Policy
  • J39 - Other
  • J4 - Particular Labor Markets
  • J40 - General
  • J41 - Labor Contracts
  • J42 - Monopsony; Segmented Labor Markets
  • J43 - Agricultural Labor Markets
  • J44 - Professional Labor Markets; Occupational Licensing
  • J45 - Public Sector Labor Markets
  • J46 - Informal Labor Markets
  • J47 - Coercive Labor Markets
  • J48 - Public Policy
  • J49 - Other
  • J5 - Labor-Management Relations, Trade Unions, and Collective Bargaining
  • J50 - General
  • J51 - Trade Unions: Objectives, Structure, and Effects
  • J52 - Dispute Resolution: Strikes, Arbitration, and Mediation; Collective Bargaining
  • J53 - Labor-Management Relations; Industrial Jurisprudence
  • J54 - Producer Cooperatives; Labor Managed Firms; Employee Ownership
  • J58 - Public Policy
  • J59 - Other
  • J6 - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers
  • J60 - General
  • J61 - Geographic Labor Mobility; Immigrant Workers
  • J62 - Job, Occupational, and Intergenerational Mobility
  • J63 - Turnover; Vacancies; Layoffs
  • J64 - Unemployment: Models, Duration, Incidence, and Job Search
  • J65 - Unemployment Insurance; Severance Pay; Plant Closings
  • J68 - Public Policy
  • J69 - Other
  • J7 - Labor Discrimination
  • J70 - General
  • J71 - Discrimination
  • J78 - Public Policy
  • J79 - Other
  • J8 - Labor Standards: National and International
  • J80 - General
  • J81 - Working Conditions
  • J82 - Labor Force Composition
  • J83 - Workers' Rights
  • J88 - Public Policy
  • J89 - Other

K: Law and Economics

  • K00 - General
  • K1 - Basic Areas of Law
  • K10 - General
  • K11 - Property Law
  • K12 - Contract Law
  • K13 - Tort Law and Product Liability; Forensic Economics
  • K14 - Criminal Law
  • K19 - Other
  • K2 - Regulation and Business Law
  • K20 - General
  • K21 - Antitrust Law
  • K22 - Business and Securities Law
  • K23 - Regulated Industries and Administrative Law
  • K29 - Other
  • K3 - Other Substantive Areas of Law
  • K30 - General
  • K31 - Labor Law
  • K32 - Environmental, Health, and Safety Law
  • K33 - International Law
  • K34 - Tax Law
  • K35 - Personal Bankruptcy Law
  • K36 - Family and Personal Law
  • K37 - Immigration Law
  • K39 - Other
  • K4 - Legal Procedure, the Legal System, and Illegal Behavior
  • K40 - General
  • K41 - Litigation Process
  • K42 - Illegal Behavior and the Enforcement of Law
  • K49 - Other

L: Industrial Organization

  • L00 - General
  • L1 - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance
  • L10 - General
  • L11 - Production, Pricing, and Market Structure; Size Distribution of Firms
  • L12 - Monopoly; Monopolization Strategies
  • L13 - Oligopoly and Other Imperfect Markets
  • L14 - Transactional Relationships; Contracts and Reputation; Networks
  • L15 - Information and Product Quality; Standardization and Compatibility
  • L16 - Industrial Organization and Macroeconomics: Industrial Structure and Structural Change;Industrial Price Indices
  • L17 - Open Source Products and Markets
  • L19 - Other
  • L2 - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior
  • L20 - General
  • L21 - Business Objectives of the Firm
  • L22 - Firm Organization and Market Structure
  • L23 - Organization of Production
  • L24 - Contracting Out; Joint Ventures; Technology Licensing
  • L25 - Firm Performance: Size, Diversification, and Scope
  • L26 - Entrepreneurship
  • L29 - Other
  • L3 - Nonprofit Organizations and Public Enterprise
  • L30 - General
  • L31 - Nonprofit Institutions; NGOs; Social Entrepreneurship
  • L32 - Public Enterprises; Public-Private Enterprises
  • L33 - Comparison of Public and Private Enterprises and Nonprofit Institutions; Privatization; Contracting Out
  • L38 - Public Policy
  • L39 - Other
  • L4 - Antitrust Policy
  • L40 - General
  • L41 - Monopolization; Horizontal Anticompetitive Practices
  • L42 - Vertical Restraints; Resale Price Maintenance; Quantity Discounts
  • L43 - Legal Monopolies and Regulation or Deregulation
  • L44 - Antitrust Policy and Public Enterprise, Nonprofit Institutions, and Professional Organizations
  • L49 - Other
  • L5 - Regulation and Industrial Policy
  • L50 - General
  • L51 - Economics of Regulation
  • L52 - Industrial Policy; Sectoral Planning Methods
  • L53 - Enterprise Policy
  • L59 - Other
  • L6 - Industry Studies: Manufacturing
  • L60 - General
  • L61 - Metals and Metal Products; Cement; Glass; Ceramics
  • L62 - Automobiles; Other Transportation Equipment; Related Parts and Equipment
  • L63 - Microelectronics; Computers; Communications Equipment
  • L64 - Other Machinery; Business Equipment; Armaments
  • L65 - Chemicals; Rubber; Drugs; Biotechnology
  • L66 - Food; Beverages; Cosmetics; Tobacco; Wine and Spirits
  • L67 - Other Consumer Nondurables: Clothing, Textiles, Shoes, and Leather Goods; Household Goods; Sports Equipment
  • L68 - Appliances; Furniture; Other Consumer Durables
  • L69 - Other
  • L7 - Industry Studies: Primary Products and Construction
  • L70 - General
  • L71 - Mining, Extraction, and Refining: Hydrocarbon Fuels
  • L72 - Mining, Extraction, and Refining: Other Nonrenewable Resources
  • L73 - Forest Products
  • L74 - Construction
  • L78 - Government Policy
  • L79 - Other
  • L8 - Industry Studies: Services
  • L80 - General
  • L81 - Retail and Wholesale Trade; e-Commerce
  • L82 - Entertainment; Media
  • L83 - Sports; Gambling; Restaurants; Recreation; Tourism
  • L84 - Personal, Professional, and Business Services
  • L85 - Real Estate Services
  • L86 - Information and Internet Services; Computer Software
  • L87 - Postal and Delivery Services
  • L88 - Government Policy
  • L89 - Other
  • L9 - Industry Studies: Transportation and Utilities
  • L90 - General
  • L91 - Transportation: General
  • L92 - Railroads and Other Surface Transportation
  • L93 - Air Transportation
  • L94 - Electric Utilities
  • L95 - Gas Utilities; Pipelines; Water Utilities
  • L96 - Telecommunications
  • L97 - Utilities: General
  • L98 - Government Policy
  • L99 - Other

M: Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics

  • M00 - General
  • M1 - Business Administration
  • M10 - General
  • M11 - Production Management
  • M12 - Personnel Management; Executives; Executive Compensation
  • M13 - New Firms; Startups
  • M14 - Corporate Culture; Diversity; Social Responsibility
  • M15 - IT Management
  • M16 - International Business Administration
  • M19 - Other
  • M2 - Business Economics
  • M20 - General
  • M21 - Business Economics
  • M29 - Other
  • M3 - Marketing and Advertising
  • M30 - General
  • M31 - Marketing
  • M37 - Advertising
  • M38 - Government Policy and Regulation
  • M39 - Other
  • M4 - Accounting and Auditing
  • M40 - General
  • M41 - Accounting
  • M42 - Auditing
  • M48 - Government Policy and Regulation
  • M49 - Other
  • M5 - Personnel Economics
  • M50 - General
  • M51 - Firm Employment Decisions; Promotions
  • M52 - Compensation and Compensation Methods and Their Effects
  • M53 - Training
  • M54 - Labor Management
  • M55 - Labor Contracting Devices
  • M59 - Other

N: Economic History

  • N00 - General
  • N01 - Development of the Discipline: Historiographical; Sources and Methods
  • N1 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics; Industrial Structure; Growth; Fluctuations
  • N10 - General, International, or Comparative
  • N11 - U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913
  • N12 - U.S.; Canada: 1913-
  • N13 - Europe: Pre-1913
  • N14 - Europe: 1913-
  • N15 - Asia including Middle East
  • N16 - Latin America; Caribbean
  • N17 - Africa; Oceania
  • N2 - Financial Markets and Institutions
  • N20 - General, International, or Comparative
  • N21 - U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913
  • N22 - U.S.; Canada: 1913-71
  • N23 - Europe: Pre-1913
  • N24 - Europe: 1913-
  • N25 - Asia including Middle East
  • N26 - Latin America; Caribbean
  • N27 - Africa; Oceania
  • N3 - Labor and Consumers, Demography, Education, Health, Welfare, Income, Wealth, Religion, and Philanthropy
  • N30 - General, International, or Comparative
  • N31 - U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913
  • N32 - U.S.; Canada: 1913
  • N33 - Europe: Pre-1913
  • N34 - Europe: 1913-
  • N35 - Asia including Middle East
  • N36 - Latin America; Caribbean
  • N37 - Africa; Oceania
  • N4 - Government, War, Law, International Relations, and Regulation
  • N40 - General, International, or Comparative
  • N41 - U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913
  • N42 - U.S.; Canada: 1913-
  • N43 - Europe: Pre-1913
  • N44 - Europe: 1913-
  • N45 - Asia including Middle East
  • N46 - Latin America; Caribbean
  • N47 - Africa; Oceania
  • N5 - Agriculture, Natural Resources, Environment, and Extractive Industries
  • N50 - General, International, or Comparative
  • N51 - U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913
  • N52 - U.S.; Canada: 1913
  • N53 - Europe: Pre-1913
  • N54 - Europe: 1913-
  • N55 - Asia including Middle East
  • N56 - Latin America; Caribbean
  • N57 - Africa; Oceania
  • N6 - Manufacturing and Construction
  • N60 - General, International, or Comparative
  • N61 - U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913
  • N62 - U.S.; Canada: 1913-
  • N63 - Europe: Pre-1913
  • N64 - Europe: 1913-
  • N65 - Asia including Middle East
  • N66 - Latin America; Caribbean
  • N67 - Africa; Oceania
  • N7 - Transport, Trade, Energy, Technology, and Other Services
  • N70 - General, International, or Comparative
  • N71 - U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913
  • N72 - U.S.; Canada: 1913-
  • N73 - Europe: Pre-1913
  • N74 - Europe: 1913-
  • N75 - Asia including Middle East
  • N76 - Latin America; Caribbean
  • N77 - Africa; Oceania
  • N8 - Micro-Business History
  • N80 - General, International, or Comparative
  • N81 - U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913
  • N82 - U.S.; Canada: 1913-
  • N83 - Europe: Pre-1913
  • N84 - Europe: 1913-
  • N85 - Asia including Middle East
  • N86 - Latin America; Caribbean
  • N87 - Africa; Oceania
  • N9 - Regional and Urban History
  • N90 - General, International, or Comparative
  • N91 - U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913
  • N92 - U.S.; Canada: 1913-
  • N93 - Europe: Pre-1913
  • N94 - Europe: 1913-
  • N95 - Asia including Middle East
  • N96 - Latin America; Caribbean
  • N97 - Africa; Oceania

O: Economic Development, Technological Change and Growth

  • O00 - General
  • O1 - Economic Development
  • O10 - General
  • O11 - Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development
  • O12 - Microeconomic Analyses of Economic Development
  • O13 - Agriculture; Natural Resources; Environment; Other Primary Products
  • O14 - Industrialization; Manufacturing and Service Industries; Choice of Technology
  • O15 - Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration
  • O16 - Financial Markets; Saving and Capital Investment; Corporate Finance and Governance
  • O17 - Formal and Informal Sectors; Shadow Economy; Institutional Arrangements
  • O18 - Urban, Rural, Regional, and Transportation Analysis; Housing; Infrastructure
  • O19 - International Linkages to Development; Role of International Organizations
  • O2 - Development Planning and Policy
  • O20 - General
  • O21 - Planning Models; Planning Policy
  • O22 - Project Analysis
  • O23 - Fiscal and Monetary Policy in Development
  • O24 - Trade Policy; Factor Movement Policy; Foreign Exchange Policy
  • O25 - Industrial Policy
  • O29 - Other
  • O3 - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights
  • O30 - General
  • O31 - Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives
  • O32 - Management of Technological Innovation and R&D
  • O33 - Technological Change: Choices and Consequences; Diffusion Processes
  • O34 - Intellectual Property and Intellectual Capital
  • O35 - Social Innovation
  • O38 - Government Policy
  • O39 - Other
  • O4 - Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity
  • O40 - General
  • O41 - One, Two, and Multisector Growth Models
  • O42 - Monetary Growth Models
  • O43 - Institutions and Growth
  • O44 - Environment and Growth
  • O47 - Empirical Studies of Economic Growth; Aggregate Productivity; Cross-Country Output Convergence
  • O49 - Other
  • O5 - Economywide Country Studies
  • O50 - General
  • O51 - U.S.; Canada
  • O52 - Europe
  • O53 - Asia including Middle East
  • O54 - Latin America; Caribbean
  • O55 - Africa
  • O56 - Oceania
  • O57 - Comparative Studies of Countries

P: Economic Systems

  • P00 - General
  • P1 - Capitalist Systems
  • P10 - General
  • P11 - Planning, Coordination, and Reform
  • P12 - Capitalist Enterprises
  • P13 - Cooperative Enterprises
  • P14 - Property Rights
  • P16 - Political Economy
  • P17 - Performance and Prospects
  • P19 - Other
  • P2 - Socialist Systems and Transitional Economies
  • P20 - General
  • P21 - Planning, Coordination, and Reform
  • P22 - Prices
  • P23 - Factor and Product Markets; Industry Studies; Population
  • P24 - National Income, Product, and Expenditure; Money; Inflation
  • P25 - Urban, Rural, and Regional Economics
  • P26 - Political Economy; Property Rights
  • P27 - Performance and Prospects
  • P28 - Natural Resources; Energy; Environment
  • P29 - Other
  • P3 - Socialist Institutions and Their Transitions
  • P30 - General
  • P31 - Socialist Enterprises and Their Transitions
  • P32 - Collectives; Communes; Agriculture
  • P33 - International Trade, Finance, Investment, Relations, and Aid
  • P34 - Financial Economics
  • P35 - Public Finance
  • P36 - Consumer Economics; Health; Education and Training; Welfare, Income, Wealth, and Poverty
  • P37 - Legal Institutions; Illegal Behavior
  • P39 - Other
  • P4 - Other Economic Systems
  • P40 - General
  • P41 - Planning, Coordination, and Reform
  • P42 - Productive Enterprises; Factor and Product Markets; Prices; Population
  • P43 - Public Economics; Financial Economics
  • P44 - National Income, Product, and Expenditure; Money; Inflation
  • P45 - International Trade, Finance, Investment, and Aid

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