Chapter 25 Section 2 Industrialization Case Study Manchester Ppt

Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9-2 Industrialization: Case Study of Manchester."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 9-2Industrialization: Case Study of Manchester

2 Goals and Objectives Upon completion students should be able to:
Describe the social and economic effects of industrializationEvaluate the growing tensions between middle and working classes.Identify positive effects of the Industrial Revolution.Describe Manchester as an industrial city.

3 Industrialization Changes Life Factory Work
-Factories pay more than farms.-This led to the demand for more expensive goods

4 Industrial Cities Rise
Urbanization-The rise of population and movement of people leading to the growth of citiesGrowing population provided workforce and market for factory goods.

5 British Industrial cities:
The most industrialized cities were London, Birmingham, Manchester, Liverpool


7 Living ConditionsSickness widespread; epidemics, like cholera, sweep urban slumsLife span in one large city is only 17 yearsWealthy Merchants, factory owners live inluxurious suburban homes

8 Conditions in urban cities
Rapidly growing cities lacked sanitary conditions or building codesCities also lacked adequate housing, education, police and fire protection.

9 Working ConditionsAverage working day 14 hours for 6 days a week, year roundDirty, poorly lit factories injure workersMany coal miners killed by coal dustWomen and children were often exploited in work places.

10 The Middle Class Middle class has comfortable standard of living
Middle Class-skilled workers, merchants, rich farmers, professionalsEmerging middle class is looked down upon by landowners, aristocratsMiddle class has comfortable standard of living

11 The Working Class Laborers’ lives not improved;
some laborers replaced by machinesLuddites, other groups destroyed machinery that puts them out of workUnemployment a serious problem; unemployed riot

12 Positives of the industrial revolution
Created jobs, enriches nation, encourages technological progressEducation expands, clothing cheaper, diet and housing improveWorkers eventually won shorter hours, better wages and conditions

13 Long-Term EffectsImproved living and working conditions still present todayGovernments use increased tax revenues for urban improvementsThe rise of labor unions

14 The Mills of Manchester
Manchester has labor, water power, nearby port at LiverpoolPoor live and work unhealthy, even dangerous, environmentBusiness owners make profits by risking their own money on factoriesEventually, working class sees its standard of living rise some

15 Children in Manchester Factories
Children as young as 6 work in factories;many are injured1819 Factory Act restricts working age, hours

16 Pollution Factory pollution fouls air, poisons river
Nonetheless, Manchester produces goods and creates wealth

Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9 Section 2 Industrialization Case Study: Manchester"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 9 Section 2 Industrialization Case Study: Manchester
Objective: Analyze the impact of industrialization on societyVocabulary: Urbanization & Middle Class

2 Setting the StageIndustrialization led to a better quality of life for most peopleRapid industrialization brought plentiful jobs, but it also caused unhealthy working conditions, air & water pollution, & the ills of child laborIt also led to class tensions, especially between the working class & the middle class

3 Industrialization Changes Life
By the 1800s, people could earn higher wages in factories than on farmsPeople wore better clothing, woven on power looms in England’s industrial citiesCities swelled with waves of job seekers

4 Industrial Cities Rise
The number of European cities boasting more than 100,000 inhabitants rose from 22 to 47Urbanization: growth of cities & the migration of people into themFactories developed in clusters because they were built near sources of energyLondon had a population of about one million & was Europe’s largest city

5 Living ConditionsEngland had no development plans, sanitary codes, or building codesEngland lacked adequate housing, education, & police protection for the people who poured in from the countryside to seek jobsWorkers lived in dark, dirty shelters, with whole families crowding in one bedroomAverage life span was 17 for working-class citizens living in the city

6 Working ConditionsFactory owners wanted to keep their machines running as many hours as possibleThe average worker spent 14 hours a day at the job, 6 days a weekFactories were seldom lit or cleanThere was no government program to provide aid in case of injuryWomen & children were employed in the mining industry because they were the cheapest source of labor

7 Class Tensions GrowThe Industrial Revolution created enormous amounts of wealth in the nationMost of this wealth belonged to factory owners, shippers, & merchantsMiddle Class: social class made up of skilled workers, professionals, businesspeople, & wealthy farmers

8 The Middle ClassThe new middle class transformed the social structure of Great BritainThe upper middle class consisted of government employees, doctors, lawyers, & managersThe lower middle class included factory overseers & skilled workers

9 The Working ClassThe working class, saw little improvement in their living & working conditionsSome people tried to destroy the machines they felt were putting them out of workThe Luddites attacked whole factories by destroying laborsaving machineryMobs of workers rioted, mainly because of poor living & working conditions

10 Positive Effects of the Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution created jobs & contributed to the wealth of the nationIt also produced healthier diets, better housing, & cheaper clothingFor the working class, it took longer, but their lives gradually improve

11 Long-Term EffectsLiving & working conditions improved over those workers in the 19th centuryProfits derived from industrialization produced tax revenuesProfits have allowed local, state, & federal governments to invest in urban improvements & raised the standard of living

12 The Mills of Manchester
Manchester’s rapid, unplanned growth made it an unhealthy place for the poor people who lived & worked thereHowever, wealth flowed from its factoriesEventually the working class saw their standard of living improveChildren were beaten to stay awake & used on the most dangerous machine due to their tiny handsFactory Act of 1819, finally put restrictions on working age & hours


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