Short Essay On Democracy In Pakistan Government

Essay upon Democracy In Pakistan discussed here along with future and past of Pakistan’s democracy. Pakistan is a country whose foundations were being made on the basis of democracy and equality. In 1947 when Pakistan got the independence the first democratic government was being established. Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah has the vision that the country should be ruled by the people and for that purpose general public representative was being required rather than an autocratic administrator. This was a very pleasant dream but unfortunately and due to the unstable situation of the country; democracy was being dented various times by the generals of Pakistani Army, this was being done by imposing Martial law and bringing the end to the democratic governance.

Democracy In Pakistan

Pakistan is one of those countries in which the largest numbers of martial laws were being imposed and this is significant example which shows that how frequently Pakistan has gone through the military rule. General Ayub Khan was the first Army General who imposed the Martial Law in Pakistan and it was in October 1958, when Sikander Mirza was being overruled by the army and first dictatorship was being implemented in the country. Although people were not very much satisfied by the army rule but still they played the vital role in maintaining the law and order situation of the country.

Second Martial Law was being imposed by General Zia-ul-Haq which again dented the democracy of the state and this time the conditions were even worse when the army General hanged one of the greatest leaders and one of the most renowned democratic leaders of the world; Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto. The third and the final Martial Law which was being imposed in the country so far was in May 1998 when General Pervez Musharaf took over and threw down the government of Sharif Brothers which later resulted in their exile. This was the time period when Pakistan took the flight of success and economic development, no doubt this tenure of dictatorship proved to be very much healthy and productive for the nation as the law and order situation was being improved comprehensively.

In 2008 when Benazir Bhutto returned to the country was being martyred in a terrorist activities which gave the victory to the Pakistan People’s Party in the general elections of 2008 and this democratic government completed its tenure of 5 years recently. This is the first time which is being seen in the history of Pakistan that the democratic government has completed its allocated tenure. Democracy is very much essential for the country and hopefully in Pakistan democracy will prevail in the upcoming elections.

Democracy (Urdu: جمہوریت‬‎; pronounced jamhooriat) is one of the ideologies and systems upon which Pakistan was sought to be established in 1947 as a nation-state, as envisaged by the leader and founding father of the nation, Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Pakistan constitutionally is a democratic parliamentary republic with its political system based on an elected form of governance. However, in past history there have been deviations from democracy in the form of military coups and political uncertainty.[1] Today Pakistan is the one of the newest functioning democracies since 2008, with the first democratic elections held in 2013 to complete a 5 year term for the first time in its political history. As of current status,[when?] Pakistan is also the 5th largest and is also the largest Majoritarian democracy and (non-liberal) in the world and perhaps considered as the world's largest Islamic democracy within the Muslim world as opposed to a modern liberal democracy, such as modern Republic of Turkey, with its western orientated values.[2][3]


The Original Concept of Democracy in the World And Also in the Asian Continent has historical root in the Indus Valley Civilisation, which thrived in modern-day Pakistan.

It was one of the earliest and largest ancient human civilisations alongside Mesopotamia, the Nile Valley, Anatolia and ancient China, known for its highly developed, sophisticated and urbanised culture and much later also old Greece which had some form of democratic rule.

Historians and social scientists studying the civilisation's social structure observe that the Indus Valley had an organised planning system, including standard architecture, civic controls, consistent grid layouts and uniformed sanitary facilities. This well-disciplined lifestyle and a common Rule of Law extending throughout a large area leads some historians to believe and suggest the Indus Valley civilisation in Pakistan as possibly the earliest cradle and model of democracy; one which was based on a "popular rule by the people" based on the conceptions of Welfare State and Rule of law (and hence the presence of some form of Democracy) which even predated old Greece.[4][5]

Political system[edit]

Democracy failed exceptionally quickly after independence because Pakistan possessed a weak and fragmented political party that was unable to resolve key governing conflicts.[6] In the wake of intensifying political instability, the civilian bureaucracy and military assumed governing power in 1958. Since its independence, Pakistan's democratic system has fluctuated between civilian and military governments at various times throughout its political history, mainly due to political instability, civil-military conflicts, political corruption, and the periodic coup d'états by the military establishment against weak civilian governments, resulting in the enforcement of martial law across the country (occurring in 1958, 1977 and 1999, and led by chief martial law administrator-generals Ayub Khan, Zia-ul-Haq and Pervez Musharraf respectively).[7] Democracy in Pakistan, however imperfect, has been allowed to function to varyin degrees. Until 2013, Pakistan did not experience even one democratic transfer of power from one democratically elected government that had completed its tenure to another. All of its previous democratic transitions have been aborted by military coup .[8] Should the 2018 elections see success it will be the longest period for which Pakistan has stayed a democracy without witnessing a military coup.

See also[edit]


External links[edit]

  1. ^Pakistan, ruled by the military for half of its 66-year life, has taken steps toward democracy, but the process is far from complete.
  2. ^Trofimov, Yaroslav (10 May 2013). "Democracy Is on Ballot in Pakistan". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 15 May 2013. 
  3. ^Ahmad, Saeed. "Pakistan's Next Leader Vows Better U.S. Ties". WSJ. Retrieved 15 May 2013. 
  4. ^The Indus Valley civilization – cradle of democracy?
  5. ^Did Democracy Begin in the Indus Valley?
  6. ^Tudor, Maya. "The Promise of Power: The Origins of Democracy in India and Autocracy in Pakistan." (Cambridge University Press, 2013. ISBN 978-1-107-03296-5). Chapter 5.
  7. ^Afzal, Azeem. "Democracy in Pakistan". Retrieved 26 December 2011. 
  8. ^Aqil Shah, The Army and Democracy: Military Politics in Pakistan |(Harvard University Press, 2014), p. 1. [1]ISBN 9780674728936


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